Original title: after China's accession to the WTO, has it fulfilled its WTO commitments?
Since China's accession to the world trade organization, China has gradually expanded its market access, continued to improve its economic and trade environment, and has entered a new stage in all directions, multi-level and wide fields. How did China fulfill its WTO commitments after its accession to the WTO? What efforts have been made in opening wider to the outside world?
Today, business micro news takes you to see how Shi Jingxia, Dean of University of International Business and Economics law school and international law professor, said.
Q: what changes have taken place in China since joining the WTO?
First, China's accession to the WTO has made China an important step to integrate into the world's major economies. China has achieved a series of important diplomatic and economic achievements. The total import of goods in China increased from 240 billion US dollars in 2001 to 1 trillion and 900 billion US dollars in 2017, with an annual increase of 13.8%, which is two times the annual growth rate of the global annual import. Since 2013, China has become the world's largest cargo trading country, and now it has become the top three export market of the 54 members. According to the statistics of the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations, China's economy has contributed more than 30% to world economic growth over the years. Although China's economic development has entered a new normal in recent years, its growth rate has slowed down, but its importance as a global economic engine is still growing.
Secondly, China's entry into the WTO has led to the development of China's reform by opening up and promoting the development of reform and promoting the further improvement of China's economic system reform process and the market economy. After China's entry into the WTO, China pays more attention to learning and applying international market rules, establishing a stable and predictable trade system, more open business environment, further strengthening of enterprise's competitive consciousness, and the idea of market consciousness, rule of law and intellectual property right. Some industries which lack competitiveness for a long time have formed their respective competitive advantages under the open market economy, and have also obtained faster and better development. In addition, China's entry into the WTO has made the opening of China's opening from one-way investment to two-way open, and Chinese enterprises began to move more to the international market, and China has developed into a two-way investment country.
Thirdly, China's entry into the WTO has greatly improved the living standard of our people. In order to improve the people's livelihood, the Chinese government has continuously increased its input in the fields of education, employment, income distribution, social security and medical care, so that the masses can share the dividends brought by the reform and opening up and economic development.
Q: has China fulfilled its WTO commitments after its accession to the WTO?
Since China's accession to the WTO, China has actively fulfilled its commitments under the WTO and fulfilled its obligations under the framework of the multilateral trading system and fully demonstrated the good faith image of the responsible developing countries. In fact, China has not only fully fulfilled its commitments to join the WTO, but has also made great efforts to further expand its opening up.
For example, in the implementation of the open commitments in the field of trade in goods, China has substantially reduced tariffs, significantly reduced non-tariff barriers and fully liberalized the right to trade in foreign trade in accordance with its commitments at the time of accession. On this basis, in terms of autonomy and opening up, in 2017 alone, China further reduced taxes on 187 items of tax items, including clothing and cosmetics. In the implementation of the open commitment in the field of service trade, China has a high level of opening up the service market and continuously reducing the restrictions on the service field. The 100 departments committed to the WTO entry are not only in place, but at present, through the way of self-propelling, they have been further opened to nearly 120 departments in different degrees. In the FTA, the openness of finance, distribution, transportation and other fields exceeded the level of WTO commitments. In the field of investment, the number of restrictions on foreign investment in China's manufacturing industry dropped by more than 50 compared with that in WTO.
In fulfilling the commitment to intellectual property protection, China has gradually improved the legal system and system guarantee and continued to strengthen the enforcement of intellectual property protection. In the performance of transparency obligations, the legal system is clearly provided, and the WTO notification obligation is fully fulfilled; in the field of trade compliance, the drafted trade has been carried out in a solid way. The compliance assessment of Yi policy and proper response to trade partners' concerns about the trade policy has been issued. In addition, China has always adhered to the reform direction of the socialist market economic system since China's entry into the WTO, accelerated the adjustment of industrial structure and technological innovation, and adjusted the industry in the throes of the industry, and the agriculture also made great efforts to fulfill the commitment to the WTO entry.
China's self fulfilling efforts to fulfill WTO commitments and further opening up to the outside world are obvious to all. During the 16 years of China's accession to the WTO, US exports to China increased by 500%, while US exports to global goods grew by only 90%. China has jumped from the eighth largest export market in the United States to the third largest export market. The United States Trade Representative Office (USTR) has a number of annual reports on China's commitment to China's accession to the world. It has no lack of a positive assessment of China's achievements in fulfilling its commitments. It believes that the Chinese government has taken many measures to fulfill its WTO commitments and has brought a large number of employment opportunities for the United States.
Q: the United States accuses China of enjoying the preferential treatment of WTO with the status of developing countries.
WTO has not been clearly defined by developing countries. The developing countries and developed countries in WTO are all self positioning by members. The world bank's standard for developed countries is determined to be 12 thousand dollars per capita national income. According to statistics, China's per capita GDP in 2017 was 59660 yuan (8836 US dollars), ranking 70 in the IMF global per capita rankings. Therefore, although China's total economic total is second in the world, it is still the largest developing country in the world. There is still a big gap between the developed countries in terms of per capita GDP, urban and rural development, social welfare and so on.
WTO special and differential treatment for the members of developing countries is mainly reflected in 5 aspects: a lower level of duty; a more flexible implementation timetable, a longer transition period; the developed countries make the best of their efforts to open their goods and service markets to developing countries; and more preferential treatment for the least developed countries; For technical assistance and personnel training. When China joined the WTO in 2001, it was a basic principle that China was explicitly joined as a developing country. On the specific obligations of the WTO agreement, China, in principle, enjoys special and differential treatment to the developing countries, but also assumes commensurate obligations in accordance with its own actual level of development. For example, the level of domestic support for agriculture, China's commitment to not exceed 8.5% of the agricultural output value, 10% different from the general development members, but not 5% of the developed members.
It needs to be pointed out that, as a member of a separate application and a negotiated member of the WTO, China has undertaken in many respects more obligations than other members in the negotiations with the WTO members, including the United States, that is to say, China has paid the price. Today, for example, China is still beset by the "alternative countries". In the case of anti-dumping investigation, the cost comparison of the product price of the third country, which is the "substitute country", can be chosen, which leads to many Chinese enterprises to be dumped "well and well". Therefore, accusing China of enjoying the preferential treatment of WTO by developing countries is totally unfair and inconsistent with objective reality.
Q: how is China firmly committed to maintaining the multilateral trading system under the new international trade situation?
In recent years, trade protectionism has risen, and individual major members pursue unilateralism. The WTO system faces some serious challenges, including the serious lag of negotiation function and the dilemma of the judge selection of the Appellate Body of the dispute settlement mechanism. Nevertheless, WTO is still playing an important role in global economic governance. We should firmly believe that the GATT/WTO multilateral trading system and its rules have a solid foundation, a common crystallization of human civilization and a gem of modern international law. It has been and will continue to shoulder the responsibility of the rule of law in international trade.
China has always been an active participant, a staunch defender and an important contributor to the multilateral trading system. China firmly defends the basic principles of open, transparent, inclusive, non discriminatory and rule based WTO, and actively participates in the dialogue and consultations in all fields of the WTO, the success of the agreement on trade facilitation, the success of the information technology agreement (ITA) negotiations and the overall cancellation of the export subsidies for agricultural products. And so on, we have played a constructive role. China adheres to WTO commitments, adheres to the WTO rules, and actively maintains and participates in the establishment of a fair and just international trade order. It not only benefits itself, but also benefits the whole world. Under the new international trade situation, China will continue to firmly maintain the multilateral trading system and oppose trade protectionism and unilateralism in a clear-cut stand, and continue to actively promote the WTO with the times, discuss the issues of industrial concern, and pay tribute to the discussion of new issues such as investment facilitation, electronic commerce, small and medium enterprises and so on. Give the Chinese plan and the wisdom of China.
Source: Economic Daily
Editor in responsibility: Huo Yuang
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